Investment Castings are the oldest technology which is widely being used these days as well. In this technique a master die is made from master pattern which in turn produce desired patterns for assembling to get desired component. It is called Investment Casting as Investment which is ceramic mould produced by mainly three steps coating, stuccoing and hardening. This technique used to fabricate small sized components and is limited up to 300 kg components only. Mainly steel and aluminum components are fabricated with this technology. It is somewhat more expensive technique but complex components can be produced.
Laser Cutting is a computer controlled as well as gas fuelled technique which is used to cut and bend components. Mainly this is used to cut metals with ease and excellent finish in a very short span of time. Initial set up is expensive but production cost is cheaper. There are four different types of Laser Cutting techniques such as carbon dioxide, neodymium, laser micro jet and neodymium yttrium-aluminum-garnate which are being used on required process including boring, cutting, engraving, repetition need, trimming,etc.
Die Casting is a technique used to produce desired shaped as well as sized component by pouring melted material in a master mould under high pressure. Mainly aluminum, zinc, copper, lead, tin and magnesium are being used to cast under Die Casting, however, steel and other metals can also be fabricated. Initial set up is expensive in this case but production cost is too much less depending up the mass production.
As far as tube bending is concerned Die Castings would be the best option for the mass production. Tubes are very simple in structure so Investment Casting is of no use here. Cutting is not a big use in case of pipe so Laser Cutting is also of no use here.