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How to Make a Three Axis CNC Machine (Cheaply and Easily)

by:Lxshow     2020-03-14
The idea behind this note is to meet my needs for desktop CNC machines.
While it would be nice to buy ready-made units, the issue of price and size proved prohibitive.
With this in mind, I strive to design and manufacture a three-axis CNC machine that takes into account the following factors :-
Use simple tools (
Only one drill press, band saw and manual tools are required)-Low Cost (
However, this situation disappears from me and the cost of all parts is below $600 (
Save a lot of money by cleverly purchasing some products))-
Small footprint (
30 \"x 25\" footprint)-
Working envelope available (10\" X-axis, 14\" Y-Axis, 4\" Z-Axis)-
Relatively fast cutting rate (60\" per minute)-
Small number (
Less than 30 unique parts)-
Easily sourced parts (
All parts obtained from 4 sources (
Home Depot 3 online source)-
Ability to cut thicknesswood (Succesful)
Let\'s start. . . UPDATE: -
Soon got the ability to book
From oomlotta to those who work hard to do this, cut the mid-fiber board (
And prove that it is replicable)
Here are some photos of other people\'s machines. Photo 1 -
Chris formed the group with his friends;
Cut parts with a half inch acrylic laser.
Not only does it look super good, but it must weigh a ton.
But it\'s commendable that anyone working with acrylic knows that laser cutting is great, but it\'s a very unfriendly material with a lot of side drills in this design.
Nice job, see more details (
Including photos of some board Tests)
On Chris\'s blog, rainbowlazer. com.
I like him very much-
D objects cut out in 2d (here). Photo 2 -
Sam McCaskill has finished his desktop CNC machine and it looks really good.
It was impressive that he also resisted the urge to cheat and cut all the pieces with his hands.
I was really impressed. Photo 3 -Angry Monk\'s -
Cut the medium fiber plate piece on the laser cutting machine and convert it from the tooth belt to the threaded rodPhoto 4-Bret Golab\'s -
Bret has done his job and has gone through the extra steps to get it to work with Linux CNC (
One of the tasks I tried was thwarted by complexity).
If you are interested in his setup, you can send him a message (
Structure Number: bretlyssii)). Great job Bret! (
If you have set up one and want it to show up here, please send me a PM and we can arrange to send photos)
I\'m afraid I don\'t have this space (
Or expertise in this area)
Discuss the basics of CNC here, but there is a website that is particularly useful in my research. CNCZone. com -
A discussion forum for DIY machine parts with rich knowledge (direct link )
Details of the machine: cutting head: Dremel or Dremel type ToolAxis details: X Axistravel: month \"drive: tooth profile synchronous belt BeltSpeed: 60\" minaccelation: month \"per second d2solution: 1/2000 \"pulse per inch: 2001Y Wheelbase: 10\" drive: Gear type timing belt speed: 60 \"minimum acceleration: 1\"/second 2 resolution: 1/2000 \"/inch pulse: 2001Z axis (up down)
Travel: 4 \"drive: thread lot acceleration :.
2 \"speed per second: 12\" minimum resolution: 1/8000 per inch \"Pulse: 8000 the goal is to try to keep the required tools within the range of a regular handyman store. Power Tools:-
Band saw or reel saw-Drill Press (
Drill bit 1/4 \", 5/16\", 7/16 \", 5/8\", 7/8 \", 8mm also Q (
5/16 closest to the Imperial drill\"-Printer (
Seems to be the right category)-
Similar tools (
Connect to finished machine)Hand Tools:-Rubber Mallet (
Provide \"persuasion\" if necessary \")-Hex Keys (5/64\", 1/16\")-Screw Driver-Glue Stick (UHU)
Or spray glue-
Adjustable Wrench (
Or 7/16 \"socket and ratchet)
Attached PDF (CNC-Part-Summary. pdf)
Provide detailed cost and purchase information for each required part.
All listed here is a summary stock---$20-
A 1/2 \"thick medium fiber board of 48\" x 48 (
Any 1/2 of paper stock can be used. I plan to make the next version with umw, but the cost is too high this time)-
5 \"x 5\" 3/4 \"thick medium fiber board (
This is used to make spacers, so any 3/4 of inventory found around the store can be used)
Motor and controller---$255-
You can write the entire instruction table on the select controller and on the computer.
In short, a controller is needed that can control three axes (
With Pulse step and direction input)
And a motor that is about 100 ounces/holding torque.
I purchased mine from them and it worked great and the kit was easy to weld. (direct link )Hardware---$275-
These parts can be obtained from three places.
Traditional items can be purchased at Home Depot, it is easy to find professional drive products in any industrial supplier, I used McMaster Carr ((
I chose them because they have a good online store)
, Finally, due to the need for a large number of bearings, I found the best price from the online seller (
$40 for 100 (
Left quite a bit of space for other projects)(direct link )Software ---(free)-
What is needed is the program for drawing the design (I used CorelDraw)
, A program that can interpret these files as pulses sent to the controller.
I am currently using the trial version of Mach3 ()
But plan to convert to Linux CNC (
An open source machine controller using linux()Router Head---(extra)-
I installed a dremel type cutting tool on my machine, but if you are more interested in additive structure (
Like fab @ home or raspberry)
You might want to look at their deposit tools. Details-
The rice parts, especially the cross nut, are not very popular and I had to go to several home stores in my area before I was full. -
I can\'t find a way to link to a part directly on the MCMaster Carr website.
Find them at www. mcmaster.
Com and search Part # I have some experience with rolling saw pieces, so I chose to use glue on the pattern method.
What is needed is to print the PDF mode file onto the tiled page, then stick to each pattern and cut each pattern.
File name and material: Summary: CNC-Cut-Summary. pdf0. 5\" MDF (35 8.
5 \"x 11\" tile page): CNC-0. 5MDF-CutLayout-(Rev3). pdf0. 75\" MDF: CNC-0. 75MDF-CutLayout-(Rev2). pdf0.
75 \"aluminum tube: CNC-0. 75Alum-CutLayout-(Rev3). pdf0. 5\" MDF (1 48\"x48\" page): CNC-(One 48x48 Page)05-MDF-CutPattern. pdf(
Note: I have added the DXF version of 0.
5 \"The pattern of the fiber board to this step (DXF-05-MDF-SimpleDXF. dxf)
I have removed cross-drilling and writing from this file to make it a manageable size, if anyone wants any drawings in a different format or including different information, please write to me and I will do my best)(
Note: I included the graphics in the original CorelDraw format in the zip file (CNC-Corelrawformat-CutPatterns(Rev2). zip)
For anyone who wants to make some edits)(
Update: now there is a choice in the mode of 0.
5 \"MDF layer, you can download a file (CNC-0. 5MDF-CutLayout-(Rev3). pdf )with 35 8.
5 \"x 11\" page tile, you can also download a file (CNC-(One 48x48 Page)05-MDF-CutPattern. pdf)
It has an entire layout on the 48 \"x 48\" page that can be printed on a large format printer or tiled by itself)(Step by step)1.
Download three layout pdf files 2.
Open each in Adobe reader3.
Go to print dialogue 4. (IMPORTANT)
Select none in the page zoom dialog box.
Check to ensure that the file is not accidentally scaled, thus measuring the print ruler on one of the pages of each pattern (
Make sure it matches the ruler you Trust)(
I didn\'t do this for the first time, and then accidentally printed a copy of 90% size)
The next step is to glue the pattern to the mid-fiber board stock and aluminum tube 1.
Glue the tiled page to your paper inventory (MDF)
Make sure the edges match.
For aluminum tubes, the pattern must stick to both sides.
If the tube is flat on the table and you stick the-side pattern to the top of the B-side, you can stick to either side. Tips:-
With a lot of glue
There\'s something nearby that can help push down. Patience(
I \'d love to hear if anyone else has suggestions to do so)
Don\'t say too much about this step, just cut around each outline.
I must apologize at this stage, and I give in to the desire to deceive.
As mentioned, I accidentally printed out the initial pattern of 90% size.
Unfortunately, I didn\'t realize this until this stage.
So the rest is a set of 90%-scale parts that I can now get a full-size CNC router table after moving across the country.
I gave in and cut my stuff with this machine.
However, it can\'t go back so far to the real step to drill holes (
That\'s why from here all the pieces are not stuck to the pattern on the paper)
I haven\'t figured it out, but there are a lot of holes in this project.
Drilling holes into the edge of the material is particularly important, so take a moment and you will appreciate it when you only need to use a small amount of rubber mallets.
The area where the holes overlap is an attempt to create grooves if you have a desktop router that works better. Almost there.
All you need is to connect the motors and controllers as per the instructions and use the instructions and machine specific details contained in step 2 to set up the control software.
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