by:Lxshow     2020-03-11
I need a CNC machine for other projects.
I can\'t afford one because even a \"desktop\" machine is up to £ 1500 so I decided to make one.
I have two standards.
First of all, it has to be accurate so that it excludes anything made with plumbing materials, wood or plastic parts, and secondly, if I\'m going to build it, then, it must be a useful size if I am working on almost any project so that I can use it.
Generally speaking, the larger the CNC you build, the higher the cost it will cost for proprietary parts such as linear guides and lead screws.
However, my machine is made of materials that are readily available in the hardware and building product stores, and even some parts from the salvage yard, although some metal parts require laser or plasma cutting.
Although relatively cheap, be careful, you can make a machine that is not only enough for all DIY use, but may be enough for light industrial use such as plasma cutting.
My machine has not been assembled yet (
I still have wires to do)
But the project was originally intended to be published in the \"instructions\" as a series, but I decided to release the whole project.
I have released an instructure for linear rails, but will include an updated version in this rails table.
This will be a great guide as I will try to take you through each step and give a complete mechanical part to a CNC machine that is working, leaving you with only the electronics of your choice
To ensure the feasibility of the part, the whole project was designed with \"solid\" as a 3d model.
When designing other parts, they are inserted into the \"model\" to ensure suitability and practicality.
Several metal parts that require laser or plasma cutting are drawn in \"autocad\" to provide \"dxf\" files that your local manufacturing workshop can use to cut metal parts.
The DXF file for metal cutting can be downloaded from # dir = 216821966.
I had to upload the file to another website instead of AutoDesk 123 because there was no tool to upload multiple files to the project page.
The metal thickness required for each file is indicated in the header (i. e. ; 16 gauge (1. 8mm)and 5mm, etc.
My machine has not been assembled yet (
I still have wires to do).
The long object next to the machine tool is a metal channel that takes all the lines to the gantry inside the \"chain\" flexible pipe.
The figure also shows one of the chain tubes at the top of the gantry that will eventually carry the wires to the \"z\" axis motor and the wiring spindle, additional wires will also be included, and so on, in order to expand to the plasma cutting and 3D printing system in the future, I hope this will form further instructions.
I hope you enjoy this instruction and find yourself having a very useful one (
And cheaper)CNC Machine.
For my front and back beams, I used two box sections that were originally supported by the industrial shelves found at my local garbage station.
The thickness of the metal is about 16g (1. 8mm)
They gave me a useful 785mm width when cut down.
All drawings are designed for this width, but there is no reason why you can\'t use the longer part (within reason)
However, in order to accommodate the extra length, you must change some parts of the DXF file. The cross-
The section size of my member is 40mm wide and 100mm deep.
Of course, you can get the other box sections, although I would suggest they are 100mm-150mm deep.
For two intermediate crosses
Member, I used two 785mm long sections of the 50mm x 25mm steel box section.
For the cross-
Members to be fixed to a supported linear track (
See next section)
It is necessary to fix the steel splints at the end of the part of the box.
The attached picture shows how to do this. I used 3,2mm (10g)
Soft steel bars X 40mm wide.
No matter what size of metal you use, it must be installed between the Nets in the \"I\" section of the linear guide.
For the middle track, I welded the 130mm long section horizontally with the bar at the top of the box section.
For the front and rear, I used 170mm pieces at each end, and the last 40mm or so end was bent 90 degrees. (see drawing).
In order to fix the finished linear guide rail, it is necessary to cut a small gap at the rear vertical edge of the front beam below the connecting flange to allow the I section beam on the lower net linear guide rail, so that the lower side of the top flange of the linear guide rail \"I\" section fits closely on the top of the beam.
After that, the main beam will need two such gaps because the member is not installed at the end of the linear guide rail.
The two intermediate beams are mounted at the third point along the straight track between the two main components, and make sure that the top of the box section is tightly installed in order under the top flange of the \"I\" beam, the top of all Beams is on the level fixed by the machine tool of your choice.
Fix the linear guide rail to the beam flange using M5 bolts (
It\'s better to drill 4.
2mm drilling, screw the hole into the box section flange with M5 thread).
Use at least 3 bolts distributed evenly along each flange.
For the following steps (
Construction of straight track)
It is necessary to build fixtures.
The fixture in the photo is the fixture I used to build the rails.
It works very well except for one drawback;
When drilling, metal chips are easy to slide between the steel bar and the fixture, making it difficult for the steel bar to move and it is possible to scratch.
I have modified the part of the fixture channel to include a large cut to prevent the debris from being stuck on the rod.
It is easy to brush the debris between the holes in each hole.
Parts of the fixture can be seen in 5mm.
DXF details that come with this step.
The fixture consists of a substrate with a central 10mm hole for centering on the drill press table with 3 metal bars on both sides of the channel.
The first job is to sink holes for each side of the fixture channel to six holes on the lower side of the substrate.
I used a 10mm drill bit on my press until I reached the maximum diameter hole on the lower surface.
Each side of the fixture channel includes two pieces with 5mm fixed holes and a single (top)piece with 4. 2mm holes. These 4.
2mm holes need to be excavated with M5 x 0. 8 thread (
Make sure you\'re tapping the right hole).
After the thread is cut, the fixture can be as shown in the photo, using three 5mm pieces per side, and assembled using a counterhead, M5 x 20mm, Allen socket, Bolt from the lower side, and make sure the cut on the passage piece is facing inside.
Two holes near the inner edge and on both sides of the cut (
Not shown in the picture, but on the new DXF file)
Used to locate pins that center flat metal bars when drilling holes.
Holes are cut at 4.
2mm, can be used for the thread of M5 bolts, can also drill out 5mm and short metal rod, and weld or stick it in it.
The film of bondage (
Part F of 5mm. dxf file)
In the photo, the front part of the drill press is displayed to keep the center between the rod support constant at 150mm. The two outer (5mm)
The holes have 5mm metal pins welded or glued to the inside.
The top of the center hole has a broken 4.
2mm drill fixed inside.
Trammel is installed in two sets of open holes on the left side of the channel piece, providing 75mm and 150mm spacing for the linear track bracket.
There you have finished the fixture and you are ready to work on the linear guide.
The shaft length of my machine is 1800mm.
For this length, the unsupported linear guide rail must be huge in order to support the weight of itself and the gantry, not to mention the pressure exerted by the router.
Proprietary rails supported are very expensive (
About 8 pounds per 100mm long).
I \'ve overcome this by building a supported linear track on each side, which is relatively inexpensive.
The main bracket of the guide rail is 25mm x 50mm. aluminium (
I\'m British haha), \'I\' Section.
My bracket was originally attached for a removable office partition found at my local garbage station.
A relatively cheap option is to buy a few cheap aluminum mental grades from eBay, which can take 1800mm or more and have the advantage of strength and grinding edges.
At the top of Section I, a bright rail with a bolt connection length of 25mm x 5mm is used.
Then these Guide support installation in 16mm long x 12mm diameter metal on the of 8mm, bright of carbon steel or stainless steel.
Provide an electrical gasket with good clearance for the 16mm linear bearing housing.
For this part of the building, you will need to cut each of the following materials into the length required for your machine: 16mm, bright soft steel bars or stainless steel bars.
25mm x 5mm bright steel bars. (
Black Steel does not do it when rolling, so there is no correct width.
Bright steel is ground to the right size).
Section 25mm x 50mm aluminum \"I (
Or the correct length of the spiritual level of two builders)
You also need a 12mm x 8mm diameter electrical bracket long enough-
Off drilled from standard 4.
5mm holes to 5mm, there is enough support every 150mm.
You also need M5 x 12mm, sink head, Allen bolts for fixing flat bars on aluminum, and many M5 x 25mm, sink head, Allen bolts for fixing flat bars, through the stands-
And put in 16mm.
12 M5 x 20mm counterhead bolts are also required to build the fixture.
The tools you need are Drill Press, 5mm and 4.
2mm drill bit, M5 thread tap set, \"Ball-Alan\'s key.
If possible, you might want to get a set of \"screw-cut\" faucets instead of standard ones, as they are better for cutting \"blind holes\" even though they are more expensive and less accessible.
I wasted a lot of material before I found the only feasible exact drilling method, for which you have to build the fixture as detailed in the previous step.
16mm metal track rodYou need to go to an engineering store and grind a plane 1mm deep on a 16mm bar as I find it impossible to drill into a circular surface in a drill even with a end mill
This depth also provides the correct width to match the bracket with a diameter of 8mm.
On the pole. (see sketch).
The linear guide rail structure first uses the 10mm bit mounted on the Chuck and through the center hole on the bottom plate of the fixture to center the fixture to the press table.
Make sure the fixture is firmly fixed to the press table through the diagonal cutting hole on the fixture board. Insert a 4.
2mm drill into the Chuck and set the table at the correct height so that the tip of the drill bit is completed by 2. 5 -
At 3mm above the jig board, the vertical travel is the farthest.
It is crucial that the same amount of travel is always used when drilling the rod, so it is a good idea to use the \"distance\" piece that can be placed in the fixture channel every time the bit size is replaced.
Put trammel into the first group of 5mm holes, 75mm from the center hole.
Place the 16mm metal rod between the channel guide rail, face up, and dock the rod with the center pin of the channel.
Place the flat bar of 25mm x 5mm on the 16mm bar set between the pins at the top of the guide slot and place the end of the bar at the end of the bar.
Drill into the metal rod through the flat rod to make the drill bit move completely vertically.
For the first hole of each track only, tap the hole of the metal rod using a full set M5 tap numbered 3 (plug)tap. Replace the 4.
2mm of the holes are drilled with a 5mm bit and the holes on the flat bars are drilled to 5mm.
Then, use one of the 12mm bolts to bolt the rod and the rod together. Put the 4.
2mm drill back in the Chuck to ensure the maximum stroke is the same as before using the \"distance\" part.
Drill all remaining holes through rods and rods (
Make sure the rod is firm between pins)
Use trammel at the correct holes on the clamp channel guide for each rail to reach 150mm.
Then remove from the fixture.
Separate the two parts of the track, then tap all the remaining holes on the metal rod with the M5 faucet as before, and then put the rod on one side.
Change the drill bit to 5mm again and drill out 5mm of all the remaining holes in the flat bar.
Use a 10mm bit to flip the rod and sink all of these holes until the full circumference of the 10mm hole is visible on the surface of the rod.
Next, we have to arrange the fixings between the flat bar and the aluminum \"I\" section beam.
The edge of the flat bar must be along the edge of the aluminum beam.
My rail is a bit difficult because the aluminum part is 1 \"(25. 4mm)
This makes the 25mm flat bar a little bit wider.
So I had to put them between two pieces of metal with a small package on one side.
The whole batch is in the clip.
Like flat rods and rods, flat rods and aluminium need to be drilled together using 4. 2mm drill bit.
As long as the two parts are drilled at the same time, the distance between the holes is far less important than the flat bars and metal bars.
Should be drilled on each side of the rod between the metal rod fixings or between 5 and 6mm from the edge of the rod.
If you exceed this dimension, you will find it difficult to insert and tighten the fixing piece between the flat strip and aluminum, because the metal rod must be installed before the flat strip and aluminum connection. .
Tap the holes in the aluminum using the M5 faucet.
Then, just like the metal rod fixing piece, expand these new holes on the flat rod to 5mm, but this time, reverse the holes on the top of the rod.
Finally, the M5 x 25mm is used, through the bottom surface of the flat Rod, through the electrical bracket and the metal rod, the sinking head Allen bolt.
Twist these fixtures well and may use threaded sealing compounds to prevent them from loosening.
The assembly is then placed on the aluminum beam and bolted to the aluminum beam using the M5 x12 counterhead Allen bolt.
Here you will see drilling near the edge of the flat strip and using the \"ball-
Alan\'s key. .
You have it.
A pair of linear guide rails supported.
Throughout the instructions, the fixture needs to be installed on different parts.
Similarly, use the \"clip\" to prepare all 20mm and 22mm clips cut from 10mm stock. dxf\' file.
The fixture is designed to be tightly mounted on 20mm rails and 22mm roller bearings.
They need to have a \"nail\" bolt on the gap of each clip to close it firmly.
This work is done by using 4 to drill through two \"tones\" of the fixture in the drill press. 2mm drill. (
Before placing the lower part into the drilling machine pair, it is recommended to put the spare length of the 20mm bar into the 20mm fixture and put the roller bearing into the 22mm fixture.
This will help to prevent the closed gap and hole dislocation of the pressure part of the drill bit)
Next, use only 5mm of the drill bit to open the hole on one tongue and insert the M5 thread into 4.
2mm holes in the other tongue.
You can then insert the M5 x 16mm Allen bolt through the tongue to tighten the fixture around its respective parts. .
All sheet metal parts required for this stage will be found in 16g.
DXF files except X-
Shaft plate splint (6), X-Axis Plate (7)
Left and Right car panels (15 & 16)
Found on 5mmDXF file.
You also need to cut some clip laser or plasma from 10mm steel plate.
It is possible to use the 8mm plate, but this will make the drilling and tapping of the \"nail\" Bolt more difficult.
These clips can be found on the clips. DXF.
Attached to the picture in this section contains the annotation drawing of the drawing file.
Also, you need the following: Number 2
× 20mm steel bars × 535mm long (Z-Axis rails)2 No.
× 20mm steel bars × 890mm long (X-Axis rails)-
Note: This length is suitable for cross
I have installed the members and you need to adjust the length to suit your own installation.
8 linear bearings without x 20mm. 4 No.
Open linear bearings for linear guide rails supported by X 16mm (Y-Axis)2 No.
X 22mm roller bearings from eBay.
Other people are needed elsewhere in the project, so it\'s better to buy in 10 lots.
The gantry part of the fixed machine is subject to great inertia when used, because of its sudden change in weight and direction.
I suggest that whenever a joint is designated as a thread, this should replace the NUT and the Bolt, because the NUT is easily loose when the structure is affected by the force that the gantry will encounter.
In any case, you can back up the threaded bolts with a \"nylock\" nut if you want, but keep \"good\" instead of \"not \". Gantry sides.
Although the parts carrying linear bearings are pre-
Using the standard center drilling from the data sheet, I found that some bearing mounting holes are inaccurate depending on the source, and you need to provide the respective bearings (5mm)
Parts and relief holes use amateur bits with drill bits, or use needle files so that they are properly arranged along the inner edges of the van panel. Even 0.
25mm is enough to affect the action of the linear bearing, resulting in wear of the guide rail, creating friction and even not allowing the parts to move at all.
When you are sure that the holes are aligned correctly with the bearings, we can proceed with the construction.
The first thing to do is to temporarily install the 16mm bearing on the left and right car panels (15 & 16)
Then install them on the linear guide and check if they are running smoothly/when they do, you can remove the bearings and put them aside for the time being.
Next, the Transport Board needs to be fixed on the left and right gantry panels (10 & 11).
The hatchboard must be installed so that the cut on the side is located between the wings and legs on the gantry panel and rinsed with the exterior of the panel.
You will find the car panel fit closely with the panel.
The plate needs to be welded to the panel, but since the thickness of the metal is very different, you only need to weld in a short period of time (see photo)
Otherwise the Shipping Board will be twisted.
I found TIG welding to be the best way to do it because it will be able to apply local heat very quickly.
If there is still a slight warping that affects the operation of the bearing, it can be adjusted with a thin gasket between the plate and the bearing.
Once the two panels slide easily on the linear guide, we are ready for the next operation. Z-
Two of the 20mm bearings ((9)
To 20mm X-oneAxis rods (8)
Then slide a 20mm clip loosely to each end.
Send each end of the 20mm guide rail into the top hole of the gantry panel until they are equally spaced and the gantry panel is fully upright.
Install an additional 20mm clip to the end of the track, where it protrudes outside the gantry panel, and then insert two M5 x 30 bolts and nuts through the clips and panels at each end, and
Tighten the clamping Bolt.
Repeat the operation of the lower rail.
At this point you have to check if the gantry has a \"square\" and adjust the fixture if necessary.
Top and bottom gantry rails shake the top flange of the top track (1)
In vertical (not angled)
Wing of gantry side panel (10 & 11)
So the left side (
As shown in the broken parts drawing)
Flush with the edge of the left-hand panel surface.
Drill through the top track into the vertical wings of the side plates on both sides and tap the bolts at least two diagonal spacing.
It is intended that the top rail extends out the right gantry panel.
This is because the track doubles as the channel for the cable \"chain\" pipe (see photo)for the Z-
Will be routed along the axis of the right gantry panel wiring.
Additional lengths can then be used for the connector for cabling, which will greatly enhance the maintenance capability.
When you come to install the electronic device, it is essential to use the cable \"chain\" pipe, because it will extend the bending of the wire to its own length, and it will be very difficult to track and avoid the response in the cable.
On top of that, the view that the chain folds over itself during use really looks \"cool\" like a machine made commercially.
I deliberately do not include any other details of the cabling as the electronics and connectors of your choice will be an issue with your individual selection of components. (
Note: it is at this point that you need to check the operation of the gantry along the Y-RailAxis.
It should be easy to slide along the entire length of the straight track and make any adjustments.
A quick view of the photo of my machine in the introduction will show that I have completed the assembly of all mechanical components with my gantry, the total weight of the gantry structure is in the following area 15-
16 kg however, I can easily push the whole thing from one end of the linear guide rail to the other end with the back of the long nails without bending the nails.
Everything goes well now. )
Install the bottom rail (13)
To the gantry so that both ends are mounted between the wings of the gantry panel leg (
See the rendered picture).
Drill the M5 Bolt into both sides of the joint at both ends of the rail.
The track at the bottom is push and pull Y-
Shaft lead screws, must cope with the total inertia of the gantry, including sudden changes in direction and the load applied by the spindle cutting material, so you can consider after final assembly, it is necessary to support the bolts by welding or brazing the joints between the track and the panel wing so that they are as strong as possible. The X-
Shaft plates mounted on linear bearings on top and bottom rails (8)
Use the M6 x 15mm bolts and spring washers and fully torque them.
Check the assembly for easy movement along the track length and adjust as needed using the gasket and/or by relaxing the holes in the board.
Insert the thread into the hole of the stepping motor housing and install it on the right gantry panel. The Z-
AxisTake two 535mm long x 20mm metal rods and holes a 6.
There are 8mm holes at each end with a depth of about 25-30mm (
If you have a center lathe, you may find that this is best done with it, otherwise you will need to bring it to the engineering store).
Then use the M8 faucet to cut a line in each hole (
Again, I found it easier to do this on the lathe by inserting the tap into the tailstock Chuck and turning the Chuck by hand)
Fix Z-using two M8 x 20mm bolts-Shaft top plate (18)(
Project H from 5mm. DXF components)
Top of two sticks.
Sliding on four vertical 20mm linear bearings (9)
Temporarily fix them to the appropriate position on X-Axis Plate (7)
Use M6 x 15mm bolts and spring washers.
Adjust these bolts so that the rod assembly can slide the bearing up and down easily.
Temporary bolt X-
Shaft plate splint (6)
Through the lower group hole on the splint to the upper group hole on the X-Axis plate (7)
In order to make the flange between the two parts only a few millimeters.
Place the NEMA23 center drilling adapter (
J in 5mm. DXF components)
You will find that the adapter will fall to rest on the splint (6)
But will continue to remain.
Using a hand-held electric drill, the adapter for drilling is made of a 6mm-drilled splint (6)flange.
Remove the adapter. slide the Z-
The shaft top plate on its guide rail until it is close to the drilling splint (6)
Then punch through the center of the hole on the splint using the \"automatic\" center, at Z-Shaft top plate (18).
In order to accept screws and PPABD, the top plate needs to be drilled (see step 11)
After that, the bottom plate (17)
Need to be bolted to the bottom of Z-Axis rods. Remove the X-
Shaft plate splints starting from temporary position, using 22mm clamping and temporary 6mm bolts through 22mm clamping center adapter (J)from the 5mm.
Drill holes through the fixture mounting holes and the top of the splints.
Re-secure the splints to the final position using 4 M6 x 16mm Allen bolt and nylock nut.
Insert M6 thread into four mounting holes of NEMA23, Z-
Shaft stepping motor and install to its position at the top of X-Axis plate (7)
Z using M6x20-
The shaft is a threaded rod with a length of 8mm, so Z-Shaft top plate (18)
And 6mm holes on the splint (6)
A larger drill bit needs to be used for amplification until a hole of about 12mm is formed, which will provide enough clearance for the screw.
Because the weight of Z-
Otherwise the shaft assembly that will be borne separately by the aluminum connector between the stepping motor and the wire rod, it is necessary to install the 22mm bearing on the bolt above the splint, which can be clearly seen in the picture in this section, and in Z-
Shaft screw steps. The bottom Z-Axis plate (17)
Designed to accommodate small routers that I will use for fine work.
This is also a useful configuration, if you wish, to install the plasma torch using a custom clip.
The board is also fixed at the end of the 20mm bar (12)
Use M8 bolts at the drilling end.
I have included a DXF file that can be used to make a replacement base plate with 20mm thick aluminum to accommodate a standard 43mm collar spindle motor for heavier cuts.
It\'s time to introduce PPABD to you (
Padel patentBacklash device).
Screw nuts are prone to wear due to the friction between the NUT and the metal screw and the general inaccuracy of the nuts on the industrial screw thread.
This will result in a \"tilt\" and lead to a slight delay between the start of the screw turning to the thread in the nut actually starting to move the machine parts. .
This is called a backlash, and while it may not cause a big problem in many other types of machines, the CNC machine needs to eliminate this problem as much as possible to maintain precision.
A number of proprietary methods are used on lead screws made commercially to try to eliminate this problem, including low friction plastic and a circular universal system.
Many commercial screw nuts that do not use the circular ball system
The tooth side clearance uses a special engineering grade plastic called Delron.
Delron has the ability to be easily machined, and the friction performance is very low.
Unfortunately, Delron is hard to get in paper form and expensive.
Fortunately, there is a reasonable choice. HDPE (
High density polyethylene)
It has almost the same mechanical and friction properties as Delron.
It can cut a thread in and not wear too much.
High Density Polyethylene can also be expensive if you buy it with a large piece of paper, but there is a cheaper option.
Most department stores have kitchen areas that sell ordinary plastic food chopping boards.
Many of these chopping boards are made of polypropylene, but other chopping boards are marked as made of polyethylene, which is exactly what we are looking.
Choose one of the boards with at least 10mm thick.
Cut it into sections (
Keep some spare parts as the parts on the machine will eventually wear out and need to be replaced)
Using templates (E)from the 16g. DXF sections.
Similarly, using the template, all three holes are passed through high density polyethylene with a 6mm drill bit.
The center hole needs to be further drilled depending on whether it is used for a drive screw of 8mm or 12mm.
If tapping the metal, the normal pilot bit size of the 8mm and 12mm tap is 6. 8mm and 10.
2mm, but I found that better excavation of plastics, such as high density polyethylene, using a slightly smaller pilot bit (like 6.
5mm and 10mm, they are easier to find and provide tighter threads without any greater effort to dig.
PPABD is used in the Channel, just like the X and y axis, it has the advantage of providing accurate lead nuts and adding the maximum rigid pressure at the channel. The Z-
The shaft unit is fixed on a thicker steel section, so the rigid properties of the complete PPABD are not required.
After cutting the m8 thread through the center hole of each high density polyethylene on the X-axis and Y-axis, the screw passes through the holes on both sides of the channel and through two high density polyethylene with intervals of about 25mm. (
See sketch section)
Then, two external holes through the sides of the two channels and two 6mm threaded rods of high density polyethylene.
Nylock nuts and washers are used to securely secure a piece of high density polyethylene on one side of the channel and on the other end of the rod to form a rigid pillar to prevent the passage from being pushed by screws relative to the weight of the gantry components.
The second High Density Polyethylene has a pair of washers and a nylock nut on one side so that the nut can be tightened a little bit and slightly opposed to the others by opposing the high density polyethylene thread on each piece.
There is no need to tighten the adjustment nut initially because there will be no wear.
When it is necessary to recover --
Lash, simply align the adjustment nut and washer with the HDPE block and tighten the 1/4 turn.
For all the lead screws in my project, I am using the stainless steel rebar that the electrician uses to hang the cable tray under the floor.
Although it is harder to process and more expensive than mild steel, it is harder and will not bend as easily as it is when turning, resulting in inaccuracy.
The wider the gantry on the CNC machine, if driven by a single screw in the center, the greater the tendency for both sides of the gantry to move independently of each other.
I was going to be in my Y-
To prevent this, and also because of the expected weight of the gantry assembly, it intends to install a stepping motor on each assembly.
However, when I found out how much capacity the gantry was moving up and down the linear guide rail, I decided to use only one motor but drive each screw with a belt and pulley.
I used the T5 Drive Belt and the pulp paper.
On my stepping motor, there are two 40 dental rings attached to one shaft and a 20 dental ring on each lead screw.
When I use the 12mm stainless steel screw bar as my lead screw, the thread spacing is 1.
About half of 75mm is proprietary (Acme)
Therefore, the 40: 20 ratio of the screw and pulse will greatly reduce the time required for the length of the gantry moving machine.
Each of my timing belts is 160 teeth, which gives me a pulley center to the center where the pulley length is 124.
6mm first measure the precise center of the rear rail and drill a 6mm hole in the position of the stepping motor.
Then you have to copy 124.
Use the right trammel on both sides of the hole to find the 6mm arc of the position of each lead screw.
Next, drill a 6mm hole in each arc corresponding to the center height of the bottom rail of the gantry (13)
Make sure they are the same height as the bottom of the rear rail.
At this point, you should support Y-
Shaft linear guide rails with wood and remove the guide rails at both ends so that they can be placed on the drill press with each other so that the holes can pass through the two guide rail positions exactly the same.
Temporary modification of the rear rail, and pull the gantry upward to ensure that the bottom rail of the gantry is closely connected with the rear rail, and through the 6mm holes on both sides of the rear rail, to mark the position of the screw on the guide rail at the bottom of the gantry.
Use the 6mm drill bit to cross both sides of the gantry bottom rail of each screw, and then use the template (item E in 16g. DXF)
Drill two 6mm holes on both sides and open the center (lead screw)
Up to about 16mm when installed to allow enough clearance for lead screws.
Next, use the NEMA23 template (G)from the 5mm.
DXF parts, pass through the center with a temporary 6mm bolt, install it on the center hole on the outside of the rear rail, and then pass the four mounting holes through the rear rail.
Remove the rear rail, use a 38mm hole saw on the drilling machine, and open a hole on the outside of the rear rail to accommodate the raised boss on the stepping motor.
In the next operation, you need the 22mm clamping center adapter (J)from the 5mm. DXF parts.
Install the adapter to one of the 22mm clamps (from clamps. DXF)
Then use a temporary 6mm bolt in each of the 6mm holes drilled inside the front and rear rails to mark the fixture\'s fixed bolt hole.
Once all the holes are marked, go straight through the front and back rails.
Repeat this for each Y-
Spindle screw bearing and pulley shaft bearing at the stepping motor.
Enlarge each screw center hole in the beam and pulley shaft hole to enable the bolt to make 25mm hole punching and cut 25mm holes on each beam
Member position. on the in-board side.
And dug 25mm holes outside.
Rear plate side (motor)cross-
The member that is able to insert the lead screw.
Install all 22mm bearing fixtures to the correct position using the 6mm screw bar, through the front and rear main cross
Components using metal pipe gaskets in each cross
Members to prevent the movement of the CNC machine from twisting the walls of the Crossmembers.
Cut two 12mm threaded rod lead screws into the same measurements as the distance between the inside of the front and rear cross plates
Member Plus 20mm
Using a center lathe, reduce the diameter of the front screw to 8mm, 20mm from the end, and cut M8 x 0.
9mm thread.
At the motor end, for a distance of 8mm, reduce to 50mm and cut the M8 thread here.
As shown in the figure, PPABD is formed for each screw on the bottom rail of the gantry.
To install the lead screws, pass them through the two holes in the back (motor)
The end rails then pass them through two high density polyethylene blocks in the PPABD to ensure that the adjustment blocks are not restricted.
Install a 22mm bearing at the end of the rod and fix it with a 8mm nylock nut.
Release the clip on the front cross-
Members and allow 22mm bearings to enter the box section through 25mm holes.
This will allow the screws to clear the rear (motor)
Box section and allow accessories (in order)
A 8mm nut, a 20-tooth pulley, two 8mm nuts, a 22mm bearing, and the last nut.
At this stage, it is necessary to loose the timing belt on the screw.
Use the nuts on both sides to lock the 22mm bearing at the end of the screw.
Adjust the position of the screws so that the two bearings are correctly aligned in their respective fixtures and tighten the clamping bolts on each fixture.
When installing on both sides of the NUT, lock the pulley with a 40-tooth pulley on the shaft of the stepping motor.
Tap the four mounting holes of the stepping motor using the M6 faucet.
Use 8mm ID spacer tubes in the Box Section, install the motor using 6mm screw bars, which are fixed with nylock nut on the inside of the rear crossmember.
Install the 22mm bearing into the fixture on the inside of the plate, insert the 8mm metal rod through the bearing, and connect to the motor shaft using a proprietary connector, install two 40-tooth pulleys back-to-
Return to the 8mm metal rod and secure it in the proper position.
If you have a lathe, you may find that by cutting off the center boss of each pulley, and then fixing the pulley on the shaft by drilling through the surface of the pulley, you can make the assembly more compact, tap and install a long flat head screw.
I also bolted my two 40-tooth pulleys together, although this is not absolutely necessary, but I will provide more security when locking the pulpit on the shaft.
Please note: The picture shows the end rail profile of my machine.
If you are using the standard box section, you will not see the bolts.
In addition, the picture does not show the 8mm ID tube gasket that can be inserted through any hole in the Box Section during assembly.
The timing belt is very strong, but will extend a little over time.
This is undesirable because it can cause a rebound and may even cause the belt to break away from the teeth of the pulley.
In order to overcome this problem, it is necessary to install the belt tensioning device on each belt.
First install the timing belt on the mounted pulpit, then just above the midpoint of each belt, mark a point on the rear beam, then drill a 8mm hole on the beammember.
Please refer to the sketch of how to build a simple belt tensioning device and install it on each belt.
Marked on 5mm as two pieces of \"k.
The DXF file provides two arms of the regulator.
The 75mm length of the threaded rod entering the end rail fits the width of the end rail.
This length must be adjusted so that the bar can be installed through the width of the section of the rail box of your choice.
Ensure that the fixing nut welded to the end rail has a clean thread to achieve the adjustment of the screw bar.
When the tightening device is installed, adjust the 22mm bearing on each belt by two positioning nuts.
Cut M6 thread into mounting hole of Z-
Shaft stepping motor and install it to the position on the RH gantry panel using the M6x 10mm Bolt. Select the X-Axis channel (Part F of 16g. DXF)
And fix it to X-Axis plate (7)
Four nuts and bolts of 6mm are used.
Using templates (\'E\' from 16g. DXF)
Construct a PPABD similar to the unit on Y-
Shaft lead screw.
Fix a 22mm fixture on the inside of the LH gantry panel at the screw position.
Cut the 12mm length rebar from the end of the motor shaft to the inner surface of the LH gantry panel, plus 10mm.
Using a center lathe, reduce the two ends of the 12mm bar to 8mm at a distance of 20mm.
Cut the M8 thread to one end of the 12mm bar.
Slide the 22mm bearing to the thread end of the 12mm bar and lock the position with the M8 nylock nut.
Through the holes on the LH gantry panel, enter the screws through the fixture and PPABD, and then connect the threaded end of the 12mm bar to the motor shaft using a proprietary connector.
Finally, tighten the fixture on the LH gantry panel.
I chose to use a 8mm threaded rod on this shaft, because it is much shorter than other shafts, so there is less demand for rigidity, easier to install, and also helps to keep the weight of the shaft to a minimum.
Cut a 6mm thread in each mounting hole of the stepping motor and install it to X-Axis plate (7)
Use the M6x 16mm Bolt.
You should have been in X-
Shaft plate splint (6)and the Z-Shaft top plate (18).
Use a proprietary connector to mount a threaded rod of 8mm in length to the motor shaft, which passes the rod through the holes on the splint and the top plate.
Measure the length of the bar to the distance between the motor shaft and the underside of the top plate, add 60mm to the maximum stroke point and cut into length.
Install a 22mm bearing to the top of the screw bar, just under the splints, and fix it on both sides of the bearing using the M8 nut.
Temporarily mount a 22mm bearing fixture onto the bearing and use it to mark the mounting holes on the lower side of the splint, drilling, tapping and fixing the fixture using two M6x 10mm bolts.
This is the weight of Z-
The shaft is not the splint on the motor shaft.
You need to install the modified PPABD as before.
Two pieces of high density polyethylene need to be cut to fit between the 20mm rails.
Don\'t forget that the high density polyethylene block of this shaft must be drilled with 6.
5mm drill holes and threads with M8 tap.
If you drill the tap holes on two high density polyethylene pieces first, this will help, and then screw them onto the screw so that they all lean tightly against the lower side of the splint, then when the drilling hole is worn out, it will be easier to locate the two 6mm holes of the 6mm threaded rod.
Finally, install the entire component to Z-Shaft top plate (18)
In a similar way to other lead screws. . .
PPABD does not require a lower fixed amount because Z-
The axis will constrain it.
The last assembly has been said before, except for the size of the stepping motor, I deliberately did not elaborate on any electronic aspects of the CNC machine (NEMA23)
Since this is a matter of personal choice, any further attachments must fit them.
I will make some suggestions that you may find helpful.
You may have noticed that the rear rail is not at the far end of the machine.
This is a great place to protect the stepping motor and install the electronic and stepping motor drivers on the right base.
If you have this facility, it may be a good idea to surround the area with the right panel and install additional cooling fans.
The cable link is more or less essential because it is dangerous to hang the cable and bend continuously (
This usually happens in part of the cable)
Eventually leads to a failure of the inner conductor.
These chains are available from electronic components or eBay.
I have installed a 40mm wide (
Chain for me)
The channel on the 15mm side runs along the entire channel on the right side of the machine tool.
The channel can be made of 16g steel as it is elsewhere, but I did not include it in the DXF file, because its length depends on the overall length of your machine to split it open, or you can even find the right place at the garbage station.
Both ends of the channel are supported by a simple \"l\" bracket fixed in the \"I\" section of the linear guide rail.
Cable to Z
The shaft can run in the form of a chain along the channel on the back of the top rail of the gantry.
In each case you have to be on the gantry and X-
Accept the shaft plate at the top of each cable chain.
In addition, wiringI installed a plastic junction box on the RH gantry panel to terminate all cables from the long cable chain.
From there, I used the flexible plastic pipe to the top gantry rail and also the flexible plastic pipe from the drive plate to the bottom of the long cable chain.
It will prevent cable damage and will also make the work of the whole machine more professional.
Please note the basic emergency stop button on the side of the junction box.
I put the button here because it is always close to the cutting tool, so the operator is most likely to be here in case of an emergency.
Salutionsi hope you have enjoyed this instruction and you continue to make a machine that is truly valuable.
I\'m sure it\'s not too heavy for you, but I\'m trying to show you all the steps I \'ve taken and help you avoid some pitfalls.
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